Close X

DEAR READERS: is your oasis for unbiased, ad-free information on important issues. We survive on donations, averaging $22. If every reader gave $3 now, we could keep going for years. Please help.
DEAR PROCON.ORG READERS: We’re being outspent by biased organizations that use millions of dollars to misinform you. This week we’re asking our readers to help us. We survive on donations, which keep us independent and ad-free. If every one of our readers gave $3 now, the price of a cup of coffee, our fundraiser would be over. We’re a small nonprofit, but it costs a lot to keep our servers, research staff, and programs going. is your oasis on the Internet for unbiased information on important issues. If is useful to you, please take a minute to keep us online and ad-free. Thank you.

How to Cite in Bibliographies

Proper citation - whether it is in the form of footnotes, endnotes, or bibliographies - depends on your preferred or, perhaps, required style manual.

You can click the "Cite" button on the lower-right corner of any page to see that page's citation style according to the Modern Language Association Style Manual (MLA), The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago), the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA), and Kate Turabian's A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations (Turabian) - four of the most popular bibliographic protocols.

Here are examples of the proper bibliographic citation for two pages according to each of these four style manuals (in alphabetical order):
  1. APA (6th ed.): (2008, March 18). Is there a "gay" gene? Retrieved from
         /viewanswers.asp?questionID=000018 (2011, September 9). Founding Fathers on Religion in Government. Retrieved from

    [Editor's Note: The APA citation style requires double spacing within entries.]

    [For more details on this APA citation, see "Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications" at]

  2. Chicago (16th ed.): "Is There a 'Gay' Gene?" Last modified March 18, 2008.
         questionID=000018. "Founding Fathers on Religion in Government." Last modified September 9, 2011.

    [For more details on this Chicago citation, see "Website" at

  3. MLA (7th ed.): "Is There a 'Gay' Gene?" 18 Mar. 2011. Web. 3 Apr. 2013. "Founding Fathers on Religion in Government." 9 Sep. 2011. Web. 3
         Apr. 2013.

    [Editor’s Note: The MLA citation style requires double spacing within entries.]

    [For more details on this MLA citation, see "MLA Works Cited: Electronic Sources (Web Publications)" at]

  4. Turabian (8th ed.): "Is There a 'Gay' Gene?" Last modified on Mar. 18, 2008. Accessed on January 19, 2011.  "Founding Fathers on Religion in Government." Last modified on Sep. 9, 2011. Accessed on January 9, 2011. 

    [For more details on this Turabian citation, see "Web site" at

Please note that some citation methods require using terms like "last updated on [day, month year]" to represent the day that the cited Internet source was published. To accommodate those citation methods, provides, at the top right of nearly every page (including this one), information about when that page was last updated. Those references look like this: "Last updated on: 3/24/2011 2:11:10 PM PST"

On our issue site homepages, the last updated information appears on the very bottom of the page and looks like this: "Last updated on 2/14/2010 1:32 PM PST."

To quote a particular pro or con argument, cite the page it is found on using one of the four above formats. Reference the name of the individual or organization you are quoting in the body of your paper.

If you are unsure of which style protocol to follow, please consult your teacher, editor, or appropriate authority.