Animal Dissection – Top 3 Pros and Cons
Dissecting a frog might be one of the most memorable school experiences for many students, whether they are enthusiastic participants, prefer lab time to lectures, or are conscientious objectors to dissection.
Animal dissections became part of American K-12 school curricula in the 1920s. About 75-80% of North American students will dissect an animal by the time they graduate high school. An estimated six to 12 million animals are dissected in American schools each year.  In at least 18 states and DC, K-12 students have the legal option to request an alternate assignment to animal dissection. 
While frogs are the most common animal for K-12 students to dissect, students also encounter fetal pigs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, minks, birds, turtles, snakes, crayfish, perch, starfish, and earthworms, as well as grasshoppers and other insects. Sometimes students dissect parts of animals such as sheep lungs, cows’ eyes, and bull testicles. 
Are animal dissections in K-12 schools crucial learning opportunities that encourage science careers and make good use of dead animals? Or are animal dissections unnecessary experiments that promote environmental damage when ethical alternatives exist?
Should K-12 Students Dissect Animals in Science Classrooms?
Dissecting a real animal provides students with more learning opportunities.
87.5% of teachers polled agreed that “real animal dissection is important to the teaching of biology,” while 56.3% agreed that “there are no substitutes for real animal dissection.” 
Dissecting an animal offers education in fine motor skills, hand-eye coordination, and handling sharp objects carefully. Hands-on learning keeps students more engaged, which facilitates assimilation of information.  The American Psychological Association adds that animal dissection “engenders creativity, original thought, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills.” 
Using a real animal also helps to instruct students on the ethics of using animals in research.  Teachers can explain how the animals were sourced, demonstrate proper treatment of dead animals, and imbue a respect for life among students.Read More
Dissection can encourage students to pursue careers in science.
Vicki Besack, a high school science teacher in Florida, said, “Dissection … is an amazing hands-on experience,” adding that it “has the power to cause a student to change how they think about science and possibly what they may pursue as a career. It gives them that ‘aha’ moment.” 
Teachers report that students gain invaluable hands-on science experience from dissection, including putting on lab coats and gloves, handling scalpels, and looking at samples under microscopes. The entire process can spark inspiration and excitement. 
Julianna Music, a former high school student, argued in favor of dissection in the classroom by stating, “Biology is the study of life, and dissection is crucial for the understanding of life; it is a hands-on way to learn and paves a pathway for students with dreams of careers in that field… [I]t lays the foundation for possible discoveries in animal diseases and prepares young people to become future veterinarians.” One of Music’s classmates developed a desire to become an optometrist after dissecting a sheep eye in school. Read More
Animal dissection is a productive and worthwhile use for dead animals.
A large portion of dissected animals were already dead before being allocated for dissection. Having students dissect the animals allows for a learning opportunity instead of just wasting the animal.
Bio Corp, a biological supply company, reported that more than 98% of the animals they received were already dead. Bill Wadd, Co-Owner of Bio Corp, stated, “We just take what people would throw away. Instead of throwing it in the trash, why not have students learn from it?” 
Most animals used in classroom dissections are purchased from biological supply companies. Some animals, such as cats, are sourced from shelters that have already euthanized the animals. However, cats and dogs account for fewer than 1% of lab animals. Fetal pigs are byproducts of the meat industry that would have otherwise been sent to a landfill.  Read More
Methods used to supply animals for dissections are bad for the environment and inhumane.
Fetal pigs used in schools are sourced from the meat industry and grown in horrific conditions. Animalearn, the educational arm of the American Anti-Vivisection Society, said, “they are deprived of space, fresh air, and fresh forage for the duration of their shortened lives… The fetuses that end up in the dissection tray are taken from pregnant sows at the slaughterhouse.” 
Animals sold to schools for dissection may have died by suffocation, electrocution, drowning, or euthanasia. Cats and dogs used for dissection are sourced from shelters that unnecessarily euthanize the animals instead of adopting them out to families. Read More
Medical studies do not require or benefit from animal dissection.
Animal dissection is not required by the College Board for AP Biology, the International Baccalaureate for IB Biology, or the Next Generation Science Standards.  The inclusion of dissection units actually dissuades some students from taking elective science classes. 
The Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine says that “Animal dissection is not required for students to learn about and be engaged in science.”  The group found that no medical schools in the US or Canada use animals to train new physicians; revered medical programs at schools such as Stanford, Yale, Harvard, and the Mayo Clinic all use alternatives to animals.    
Nedim C. Buyukmihci, Professor of Ophthalmology at the Veterinary Medicine School of the University of California at Davis, stated, “As one who did not dissect in high school, and who now is a veterinarian and trains doctors-to-be, I can unequivocally state that the experience of dissection is totally unnecessary for the biologically minded precollege student.” Read More
Dissecting real animals is unnecessary since alternatives exist.
Synthetic frogs made by SynDaver have the same visual and textural qualities as a dead female frog: skeletons with muscles, skin, and organs, including a reproductive system with eggs. The models can be reused year-after-year and don’t need toxic formaldehyde for preservation. Students can use the model multiple times to gain a deeper understanding of the animal’s anatomy. 
Technological advances have led to computer programs that can simulate the dissection of frogs, squid, fetal pigs, starfish, and cow eyes. 
According to a meta-review by the Humane Society, students learn just as well or better when models and computer simulations are substituted for dead animals.  Models and simulations also eliminate the “gross-out factor” of smelly, slimy real dead frogs, allowing students to focus on the learning activity rather than nausea. Read More
- Several cultures, including those of many Native American tribes , consider animal dissection taboo. Consider animal dissection as a cultural matter. Which communities disagree with animal dissection for cultural or religious reasons? What is their reasoning? How can schools accommodate these cultural views while promoting STEM studies and careers to the communities? Explain your answers.
- ProCon.org has listed three pros and three cons above. What other pros and cons can you list? Brainstorm a list and then choose one pro or con to research and write a sourced and cited paragraph to support.
- Have you had to (or will you have to) dissect an animal for science class in school? What are your thoughts? Will you perform the dissection or ask for an alternative assignment? Explain your answers.
- Biological supply companies often use formaldehyde to preserve animals for dissection. According to Ken Roy, writing for the National Science Teaching Association, formaldehyde is “a known nasal and dermal carcinogen” and can cause allergy-related symptoms. Roy cautions, “no specimens that are preserved in formaldehyde should be used in middle school science!”  What safety precautions should be taken if animals preserved in formaldehyde are used in high school or college classrooms? Should animals be preserved in another way? Explain your answers.
1. Explore Carolina Biological Supply Company’s reasoning in favor of classroom dissections.
2. Determine whether your state has a student choice law or policy for dissection alternatives.
3. Consider dissection alternatives with the American Anti-Vivisection League.
4. Consider how you felt about the issue before reading this article. After reading the pros and cons on this topic, has your thinking changed? If so, how? List two to three ways. If your thoughts have not changed, list two to three ways your better understanding of the “other side of the issue” now helps you better argue your position.
Should Animals Be Used for Scientific or Commercial Testing? – Proponents say animal testing contributes to life-saving cures and treatments. Opponents say animal testing is cruel and inhumane.
Should People Become Vegetarian? – Proponents of vegetarianism say it is cruel and unethical to kill animals for food. Opponents say humans are natural omnivores.
Should Breed-Specific Legislation (“Pit Bull Bans”) Be Enacted? – Proponents of dog bans say they make communities safer. Opponents say other safety policies are more effective.