National Council of Teachers of English & International Reading Association (NCTE/IRA) Standards for the English Language Arts

The National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) is a "professional association of educators in English studies, literacy, and language arts." The International Reading Association (IRA) is an international professional organization "committed to worldwide literacy." Together the organizations created the NCTE/IRA Standards for English Language Arts, available at


National Council of Teachers of English & International Reading Association (NCTE/IRA) Standards for the English Language Arts

Standard 1

"Students read a wide range of print and nonprint texts to build an understanding of texts, of themselves, and of the cultures of the United States and the world; to acquire new information; to respond to the needs and demands of society and the workplace; and for personal fulfillment. Among these texts are fiction and nonfiction, classic and contemporary works."

Standard 2

"Students read a wide range of literature from many periods in many genres to build an understanding of the many dimensions (e.g., philosophical, ethical, aesthetic) of human experience."

Standard 3

"Students apply a wide range of strategies to comprehend, interpret, evaluate, and appreciate texts. They draw on their prior experience, their interactions with other readers and writers, their knowledge of word meaning and of other texts, their word identification strategies, and their understanding of textual features (e.g., sound-letter correspondence, sentence structure, context, graphics)."

Standard 4

"Students adjust their use of spoken, written, and visual language (e.g., conventions, style, vocabulary) to communicate effectively with a variety of audiences for different purposes."

Standard 5

"Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of purposes."

Standard 6

"Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g., spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts."

Standard 7

"Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience."

Standard 8

"Students use a variety of technological and informational resources (e.g., libraries, databases, computer networks, video) to gather and synthesize information and to create and communicate knowledge."

Standard 9

"Students develop an understanding and respect for diversity in language use, patterns, and dialects across cultures, ethnic groups, geographic regions, and social roles."

Standard 10

"Students whose first language is not English make use of their first language to develop competency in the English language arts and to develop understanding of content across the curriculum."

Standard 11

"Students participate as knowledgeable, reflective, creative, and critical members of a variety of literacy communities."

Standard 12

"Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information."

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