Banned Books – Top 3 Pros and Cons

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The American Library Association (ALA) has tracked book challenges, which are attempts to remove or restrict materials, since 1990. In 2020, the ALA recorded 156 reported book challenges in the United States, a significant decrease from the 377 reported challenges in 2019 perhaps due to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, in 2022 challenges jumped to an all-time high with in 2021 with 729 challenges, containing a total of 1,597 books. [22] [27] [28]

In 2022, attempts to ban books doubled from 2021 with 1,269 attempts to ban 2,571 unique titles, according to the ALA. The numbers also reflect a trend in which one complaint includes challenges for multiple books, whereas in the past most complaints only included one book. As of Aug. 31, 2023, there were 695 book challenges 1,915 unique titles; the ALA notes this is a 20% increase from 2022. [31] [32]

In most years, about 10% of the reported challenges result in removal or ban from the school or library. However, in 2016, five of the top ten most challenged books were removed. The ALA estimates that only about 3% to 18% of challenges are reported to its Office for Intellectual Freedom, meaning that the actual number of attempts to ban books is likely much higher. [1] [24]

In 2021, challenges were most frequently brought by parents (39%), followed by patrons (24%), a board or administration (18%), librarians or teachers (6%), elected officials (2%), and students (1%). Books were most often challenged at school libraries (44%), public libraries (37%), schools (18%), and academic libraries (1%). [30]

Sexually explicit content, offensive language, and “unsuited to any age group” are the top three reasons cited for requesting a book be removed. The percentage of Americans who thought any books should be banned increased from 18% in 2011 to 28% in 2015, and 60% of people surveyed believed that children should not have access to books containing explicit language in school libraries, according to The Harris Poll. A 2022 poll found 71% disagreed with efforts to have books removed, including 75% of Democrats, 58% of independents, and 70% of Republicans. [1] [3] [28]

As the wave of book bans increased nationwide, 2023 brought bans on book bans themselves from two states: Illinois and California. The Illinois law is focused on libraries and “protects the freedom of libraries to acquire materials without external limitations.” California’s law focuses on school administration and “prohibit[s] the governing board of a school district or a county board of education from prohibiting the continued use of an appropriately adopted textbook, instructional material, or curriculum on the basis that it contains inclusive and diverse perspectives.” [33] [34] [35]

Asking parents’ opinions provided conflicting answers for Book Riot and the EveryLibrary Institute. They found:

  • “95% of parents believe every school should have a school library
  • 93% of parents believe their child is safe using the school library
  • 80% of parents trust school librarians to select age-appropriate material for the school library, while 82% trust school librarians to recommend age-appropriate material to students.
  • 60% of parents believe school libraries should restrict access to books by age or require parental permission to check out a book
  • 57% believe that parents should receive notifications when a child checks out a book
  • 53% of parents believe they should be able to opt their children out of access to the school library while 38% believe they should have to opt their children into access.” [36]

Should Parents or Other Adults Be Able to Ban Books from Schools and Libraries?

Pro 1

Parents have the right to decide what material their children are exposed to and when.

Having books with adult topics available in libraries limits parents’ ability to choose when their children are mature enough to read specific material. “Literary works containing explicit [scenes, as well as] vulgar and obscene language” were on the approved reading list for grades 7-12, according to Speak up for Standards, a group seeking age-appropriate reading materials for students in Dallas, Texas. [4]

If books with inappropriate material are available in libraries, children or teens can be exposed to books their parents wouldn’t approve of before the parents even find out what their children are reading. [16]

Bans are necessary because “opting your child out of reading [a certain] book doesn’t protect him or her. They are still surrounded by the other students who are going to be saturated with this book,” said writer Macey France. [17]

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Pro 2

Children should not be exposed to sex, violence, drug use, or other inappropriate topics in school or public libraries.

Books in the young adult genre often contain adult themes that young people aren’t ready to experience. Of the top ten most challenged books in 2020, one had LGBTQ+ content, two were sexually explicit, five dealt with racism and anti-police opinions, and others had profanity and drug use. [18] [27]

According to Jenni White, a former public school science teacher, “Numerous studies on the use of graphic material by students indicate negative psychological effects,” including having “more casual sex partners and [beginning] having sex at younger ages.” [19]

The American Academy of Pediatrics has found that exposure to violence in media, including in books, can impact kids by making them act aggressively and desensitizing them to violence. [17]

Kim Heinecke, a mother of four, wrote to her local Superintendent of Public Schools that “It is not a matter of ‘sheltering’ kids. It is a matter of guiding them toward what is best. We are the adults. It is our job to protect them – no matter how unpopular that may seem.” [19]

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Pro 3

Keeping books with inappropriate content out of libraries protects kids, but doesn't stop people from reading those books or prevent authors from writing them.

Peter Sprigg of the Family Research Council noted that removing certain books from libraries is about showing discretion and respecting a community’s values, and doesn’t prevent people from getting those books elsewhere: “It’s an exaggeration to refer to this as book banning. There is nothing preventing books from being written or sold, nothing to prevent parents from buying it or children from reading it.” [20]

What some call “book banning,” many see as making responsible choices about what books are available in public and school libraries. “Is it censorship that you’re unable to go to your local taxpayer-funded branch and check out a copy of the ‘Protocols of the Elders of Zion’? For better or for worse, these books are still widely available. Your local community has simply decided that finite public resources are not going to be spent disseminating them,” Weekly Standard writer and school board member Mark Hemingway stated. [18]

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Con 1

Parents may control what their own children read, but don't have a right to restrict what books are available to other people.

Parents who don’t like specific books can have their kids opt out of an assignment without infringing on the rights of others.

The National Coalition against Censorship explained that “Even books or materials that many find ‘objectionable’ may have educational value, and the decision about what to use in the classroom should be based on professional judgments and standards, not individual preferences.” [6]

In the 1982 Supreme Court ruling on Board of Education v. Pico, Justice William Brennan wrote that taking books off of library shelves could violate students’ First Amendment rights, adding that “Local school boards may not remove books from school libraries simply because they dislike the ideas contained in those books.” [21]

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Con 2

Many frequently challenged books help people get a better idea of the world and their place in it.

Robie H. Harris, author of frequently challenged children’s books including It’s Perfectly Normal: Changing Bodies, Growing up, Sex, and Sexual Health, stated, “I think these books look at the topics, the concerns, the worry, the fascination that kids have today… It’s the world in which they’re living.” [8]

Many books that have long been considered to be required reading to become educated about literature and American history are frequently challenged, such as: The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger, The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, The Color Purple by Alice Walker, Beloved by Toni Morrison, and Their Eyes Were Watching God by Zora Neale Hurston. [9]

46 of the Radcliffe Publishing Group’s “Top 100 Novels of the 20th Century” are frequently challenged. Banning these books would deprive students of essential cultural and historical knowledge, as well as differing points of view. [9]

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Con 3

Books are a portal to different life experiences and reading encourages empathy and social-emotional development.

One study found that reading J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter series, which is frequently challenged for religious concerns about witchcraft, “improved attitudes” about immigrants, homosexuals, and refugees. [11]

Another study found that reading narrative fiction helped readers understand their peers and raised social abilities. [12][13]

A study published in Basic and Applied Social Psychology found that people who read a story about a Muslim woman were less likely to make broad judgments based on race. [14]

Neil Gaiman, author of the frequently challenged novel Neverwhere, among other books, stated that fiction “build[s] empathy… You get to feel things, visit places and worlds you would never otherwise know. You learn that everyone else out there is a me, as well. You’re being someone else, and when you return to your own world, you’re going to be slightly changed. Empathy is a tool for building people into groups, for allowing us to function as more than self-obsessed individuals.” [15]

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Discussion Questions

  1. Should parents or other adults be able to ban books from schools or libraries? Why or why not?
  2. Have you read any of the Top 10 Challenged Books of 2021 (see the graphic below)? Should those books be banned or restricted? Explain your answers.
  3. Is book banning censorship? Why or why not?

Take Action

1. Evaluate the perspective of parents who would like to remove a book from a school library.

2. Consider “11 Banned Books through Time” at Encyclopaedia Britannica.

3. Explore the American Library Association’s resources and efforts against banning books, including the 13 most challenged books of 2022.

4. Consider how you felt about the issue before reading this article. After reading the pros and cons on this topic, has your thinking changed? If so, how? List two to three ways. If your thoughts have not changed, list two to three ways your better understanding of the “other side of the issue” now helps you better argue your position.

5. Push for the position and policies you support by writing US national senators and representatives.


1.American Library Association, "Banned & Challenged Books," (accessed Sep. 18, 2017)
2.American Library Association, "Top Ten Most Challenged Books of 2016," (accessed Sep. 18, 2017)
3.The Harris Poll, "Adults Are More Likely to Believe There Are Books That Should Be Banned Than Movies, Television Shows, or Video Games,", July 8, 2015
4.Speak up for Standards homepage, accessed via, Feb. 25, 2017
5.Clare Trapasso, "Queens Sixth-Graders No Longer Must Read Racy 'Diary of a Part-Time Indian,'", Aug. 1, 2013
6.National Coalition against Censorship, "Censorship and the First Amendment in Schools: A Resource Guide,", May 9, 2016
7.Robert P. Doyle, "Books Challenged or Banned in 2015-2016," (accessed Sep. 18, 2017)
8.Jessica Gross, "Unsuited to Any Age Group," lareviewofbooks, Sep. 26, 2014
9.American Library Association, "Banned and/or Challenged Books from the Radcliffe Publishing Course Top 100 Novels of the 20th Century," (accessed Sep. 18, 2017)
10.Rick Abbott, "'Where Is the Line?' Book Pulled from Minnesota School Shelves after Superintendent Deems It 'Vulgar,'", May 18, 2017
11.Loris Vezzali, et al., "The Greatest Magic of Harry Potter: Reducing Prejudice," Journal of Applied Social Psychology, July 23, 2014
12.Raymond A. Mar, et al., "Bookworms Versus Nerds: Exposure to Fiction Versus Non-Fiction, Divergent Associations with Social Ability, and the Simulation of Fictional Social Worlds," Journal of Research in Personality, 2006
13.David Comer Kidd, et al., "Reading Literary Fiction Improves Theory of Mind,", Oct. 18, 2013
14.Dan R. Johnson, Brandie L. Huffman, and Danny M. Jasper, "Changing Race Boundary Perception by Reading Narrative Fiction," Basic and Applied Social Psychology, Feb. 10, 2014
15.Neil Gaiman, "Neil Gaiman: Why Our Future Depends on Libraries, Reading and Daydreaming,", Oct. 15, 2013
16.Kate Messner, "An Important Conversation about Elementary Library Book Selection & Omission,", June 14, 2016
17.Macey France, "THIS Is Common Core-Approved for Children?,", July 30, 2015
18.Mark Hemingway, "In Defense of Book Banning,", Mar. 11, 2014
19.Jenni White, "Parents Shouldn't Let Schools Force Kids To Read Smut,", Mar. 15, 2016
20.Finlo Rohrer, "Why Are Parents Banning School Books?,", Sep. 27, 2010
21.US Supreme Court, "Island Trees Sch. Dist. v. Pico by Pico 457 U.S. 853 (1982),", June 25, 1982
22.ALA, "Censorship by the Numbers," (accessed Aug. 31, 2018)
23.ALA, "Top Ten Most Challenged Books List," (accessed Aug. 31, 2018)
24.ALA, "Censorship by the Numbers," (accessed Sep. 18, 2019)
25.ALA, "Top 11 Challenged Books of 2018," (accessed Sep. 18, 2019)
26.ALA, "Top 10 Most Challenged Books Lists," (accessed Apr. 21, 2020)
27.ALA, "Top 10 Most Challenged Books Lists," (accessed Aug. 30, 2021)
28.Miranda Mazariegos and Meghan Collins Sullivan, "Efforts to Ban Books Jumped an ‘Unprecedented’ Four-Fold in 2021, Ala Report Says," Apr. 4, 2022
29.American Library Association, "Voters Oppose Book Bans in Libraries," (accessed Apr. 4, 2022)
30.American Library Association, “Banned Books: Free Downloads,” (accessed Aug. 2, 2022)
31.Alexandra Alter and Elizabeth A. Harris, "Attempts to Ban Books Doubled in 2022,", Mar. 23, 2023
32.American Library Association, "Book Ban Data," (accessed Sep. 28, 2023), "Gov. Pritzker Signs Bill Making Illinois First State in the Nation to Outlaw Book Bans,", June 12, 2023
34.Jonathan Franklin, "New California Law Bars Schoolbook Bans Based on Racial and LGBTQ Topics,", Sep. 26, 2023
35.California Legislative Information, "Assembly Bill No. 1078
CHAPTER 229,", Sep. 26 2023
36.Kelly Jensen, "Most Parents Want School Libraries for Their Children–but with Restrictions,", Dec. 20, 2023